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The Applied Research of

The Applied Research of
Class D Fire Accident and Class D Fire Extinguishing Agent
Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co., Ltd.
Guojiang Yang
Summary
D Fire ( D class Fire ) is an unusual special metal material burning fire, which is very hard to be put out. This text detailedly analysis the D Fire characteristics, the possibility and risk of D Fire in various situation. According the technical level & applied research of D Fire extinguishing agent in China, the writer creatively propose some new measures that are suitable for the new metal alloy materials technology progress , the demands by the Oil Refineries & Chemical Enterprises’ for the D Fire prevention and control in China.
It has some guiding significances for the application of Class D Fire rescue in China.
Keywords:
Class D Metal Fire, D Class Fire Extinguishing Agent/Extinguishant,
Precaution, Control & Application
Guojiang Yang :
Director & Chief Engineer of the Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co., Ltd.
The owner of more than 50 Chinese National Patents,
Focus on the research of innovation of new technology & new products in firefighting field for more than 20 years
 
 
 
 
Contents
1Foreword
2. Classify of the Metal Fire
3. The storage of Class D materials
4. Fireproof of Petrochemical production process  
5.The Applied Research of Class D Fire Extinguishant
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1Foreword
                                 
Class D fire is a special uncommon metal fire, very hard to be extinguished.  
 
It’s understand that up to now in worldwide range, only a few brands extinguishant can effectively extinguish the Class D fire, especially the Alkyl metal fire。 Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co。, Ltd。 is the only one to reach the GA979-2012 Standard in the world。
 
Since the early 1980s, experts in the relevant firefighting field have been trying a deep research in the Class-D fire extinguishing technology, but failed to make out any breakthrough in the bottle-neck problem.
 
In recent years, accompanying the continues progress & wider application of the new metal alloy materials technology in China, and also the rising demands from the petro-refineries for the Alkyl fire extinguishing, Tianjin Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security launched the Class D extinguishant standards drafting in China. 
 
The StandardGA979-2012 , Class-D Dry Powder Extinguishantwas issued in 2012/FEB/01, formally implemented since 2012/MARCH/01。 
 
 
2。 Classify of the Metal Fire
 
Fire can be classified into ABCDEF Class.   Class D fire is a uncommon special fire.
Among the Class D fire , 3 types can be distinguished out .
 
2.1    Metal Magnesium, Metal Titanium, Aluminium Powder, Magnesium Alloy & AL-alloy
The fire by these metals is the comparatively easy to be extinguished fire, because during burning , the blazer directly burn our without melting。
 
2.2   Metal Lithium & Natrium
These 2 metals have different burning features with the above mentioned metals.
During the high temperature burning, the solid Metal Lithium & Natrium will melt into metal-water, then burning , or they will burning while melting。 So once such fire occurs , the only extinguishing way is the covering method。
 
 
2.3   Alkyl Fire
Alkyl Fire always happens in the chemical industries, like oil refineries. Alkyl is usually used as catalysts in these industries.
 
2.3.1        Aluminumtriethyl (TEA) , Chemical formula C6H15AlAlC2H53
formula weight: 114.16.    Mainly adopted for organic synthesis, or rocket fuel.
This goods has a strong stimulating & corrosion effect, cause major damage to the respiratory tract and eye conjunctiva, Inhalation of high concentrations may cause pulmonary edema. Inhalation of its fumes can cause fume fever. Skin contact can cause burns, hyperemia, dropsy , blisters and severe pain.
Triethylaluminum (97-93-8) and the titanium trichloride composite Natta catalyst for the steady polymerization of propylene;
Triethylaluminum (97-93-8) and the titanium tetrachloride composite Ziegler catalyst for the low pressure polymerization of ethylene , propylene polymerization & isoprene polymerization
This product can also be used as catalyst for rubber synthesis synthetic and organic synthesis,  is a component of the Ziegler - Natta catalyst.
 
2.3.2        N-butyl lithium,
 Alkyl derivatives of lithium. Including n-butyl lithium, methyl lithium, phenyl lithium, etc, They are often used as a reagent, in which the most commonly used is n-butyl lithium solution.
     Alkyl lithium will have an addition reaction with a carbonyl compound; substitution reaction with an active hydrogen; exchange reaction with halogen lithium 。
 It has a wide & diverse reaction performance than general Grignard reagents。
The Lithium derivatives formed with a variety of metal-organic are widely used in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts & . Alkylating agent。  Also used to raise conjugated dienes to conduct anionic polymerization。
 
By living polymerization approach, you can synthesize the model polymer with various structure like synthetic linear, star-shaped, block graft, telechelic .  It can also be used to produce Low-cis polybutadiene rubber, Isoprene rubber, Solution styrene-butadiene rubber, thermoplastic rubber, Liquid rubber, Thermosetting resin, Coatings.  
 
2.3.3        Triisobutyl Aluminium   Chemical formula  C12H27Al[(CH3)2CHCH2]3Al,
Olefin polymers. Mainly adopted as catalyst for olefin polymerization & organic synthesis.
      It’s an umbrella term of the thermoplastic resin , polymerized copolymerized by ethylene, propylene, 1 - butene, 1 - pentene, 1 - hexene, 1 - octene, 4 - methyl-1 - pentene α-olefin and certain cyclic olefin homopolymer 。
 
Generally the metal fires have a common feature , releasing out hydrogen when they absorb the water molecules in the air. Once on fire, the temperature is very high, usually can reach 2500-3000 ° C and hard to be extinguished.
 
When on fire, the solid metal emits very dazzling, bright white light,
 the Alkyl fire won’t have the dazzling white light.
 
3. The storage of Class D materials
   3.1 Special precaution should be taken during the storage & transportation of the Solid light metal .
*To be kept in the dry and cool warehouse, the relevant moisture should be less than 75%.  
*To be kept away from fire and heat source。
*To be kept in different warehouse with oxidant or acids.
NEVER store or transport them in assorted way 
* Handle gently, keep package sealed。
   * To be absolutely isolated from the chlorine and other halogens.
* During the production or application process o the Metal Magnesium,  the dust, broken piece or the burs on the surface of the Metal Magnesium should be cleared promptly, for if the dust or bur’s surface is big enough, when heated in the air, they will get burnt.
If the dust accumulated in the air, they will float and gather to make up of an explosive mixture, once they meet fire source , violent explosion will occur.
 3.2  The Alkyl material should be kept within the inert gas or inside special containers.
*To be stored in cool & well-ventilated warehouse .
*The warehouse temperature below 25℃,the relevantmoisture should be less than 75%。.
*To be kept away from fire and heat source。
*To be kept in different warehouse with oxidant , alcohols or acids。
NEVER store or transport them in assorted way . 
* Package to be kept well-sealed, the content to be absolutely isolated from the air。
* Use the explosion-proof lighting and ventilation facilitie in the warehouse.
* Spark- producing Mechanical equipments and tools are forbidden
* Storage area should have spill response equipment and suitable host material,
Also lightening protection device is a must.
 
 
 
4,  Fireproof of Petrochemical production process  
(Part of the text / works cited)
4.1 Fire Dangerousness  
   4.1.1
Crude oil and its refined products are all inflammable and explosive materials。
In the refining production, many processes need to be heated or pressurized, some even need to
be high-temperature heated or high-pressurized .
Once the oil or gas leaks, combustion explosion will occur, leading to a fire accident.
 4.1.2
Though Petroleum and its products are poor conductor of electricity, but during the production & transportation, due to spray, impact, subsidence and other reasons , they are easy to produce static electricity, which may cause the oil or gas burning.
 4。1。3
Most Materials used in the Ethylene production process are gaseous. The equipments are more complicated than the refinery, running in higher temperature  (Max1010) , higher pressure (Max 11.28 MPa) .
What’s more dangerous is that the schizolytic operation temperature is much more higher than the self ignition point of the material 。 Once any leak occurs, it will immediately leads to self ignite。
If mixed with air & reach the explosive concentration, explosion will happen whenever meet open flame. 
But during the production process, open flame by heating oven will be used , so if the pipeline or equipments don’t have a proper maintenance , the cracks by corrosion will lead material leakage or the operator don’t strictly comply with the Operation Manual , it may easily lead to a fire accident .
 Cryogenic separation is undertaken in a ultra-low temperature ,-30 ~ -165 ° C。 
If the feed gas is not dry , the residual moisture within the system will lead to 'frozen block';
And improper operation may cause the device cold-crisp- rupture, causing leaks。
Also in hydrogenation, the improper proportional control of hydrogen, acetylene in the Reactor
is easy to cause an explosion, burning accidents.
 
4。2 Precaution of the fire accident 
 4.2.1 Fire protection requirements Refinery production process
 
  4.2.1.1 During the Crude oil desalting and dehydration process, in the event of power outages and other failures, the operator should immediately stop heating to avoid local overheating and damage to the equipment , which might lead to oil leak & fire.
         Workshop should have automatic alarm device for prompt accident processing.
         Before the air drained out, the 'Electric desalting and dewatering device' shouldn’t be connected high-voltage.
When the oil tank is not full or there is air inside the tank ,do not start the high voltage power supply to avoid gas explosions.
 
Regual check the high voltage power supply, in case of poor insulation or the electric field intensity exceed the standard , do not turn on the power supply to avoid the oil combustion explosion.
4。2。1,2
 * During the distillation process, regular maintenance should be taken for wall thickness of the flame heating tube , clear furnace coke, change the seriously corroded tube wall .
 *  Furnace should be located with explosion-proof room for a prompt pressure leakage in explosion case. And should have an accident venting facility, a steam fire-fighting facilities, steam  pipeline--cleaner. 
* Control valves should be installed 10 meters away from the furnace.
*  Before ignition, firstly use nitrogen or steam to exclude out the air inside the fuel line, to reduce the oxygen content to (0。2% to 1。 0%) or less to avoid tempering。
Then use steam to purge sweep the furnace 10 to 15 minutes, after drain out the combustible gas , slightly open the throttle, put the ignition rod into the fire nozzles, open the valve to ignite.
*  NEVER open the valve before putting in the ignition rod to avoid explosion。
*  High-sulfur crude oil should be desulfurized first to reduce corrosion of equipment.
* When distillation under reduced pressure, the air entering the distillation tower will form an explosive mixture and the inside tower temperature reach up to 410 ° C, all these make great danger. So, the quality of the distillation tower, flow meters, thermometers, pressure gauges, etc. should be reliable.
* The distillation towerStripper and the Light Heavy oil Pumping station should have steam foam fire extinguishing equipment.
* Inside the tower, it’s better to have a automatic combustible gas alarm, safety valve & emergency releasing pipe.
* All the equipment, pipeline and valve shouldn’t have any leakage。 If any leakage discovered, immediately stop feeding & find out the cause;  if the leakage expands, stop the machine to
 have a maintenance.
  *The electrical device in the pressure-reducing equipment should be flameproof & have a good grounding.
* During the distillation course , over-pressure operation is strictly forbidden。 Before the operation, firstly should have a overall check of the equipments & have an air-tight test。 Use the steam to sweep over the equipment & pipeline, then cold oil circulate , then heating。
When stop working, firstly reduce the working volume, low down the temperature, then sweep to clean the tower, the container, the heating oven & the pipeline, finally use inert gas or steam to have a thoroughly replacement.
4.2.1.3  
When thermal crackingthe heavy oil react in 450°C550°C (already reach its self-igniting point), any leakage will lead to fire, so all the equipment pipeline should be leakage proof to avoid fire。
For the cracking reaction happens under high-temperature & high-pressure , the oil have serious corrosion for the pipelines. This easily lead to the weakening of the pressure strength of the container or piercing. So it’s necessary to have a regular check about the corrosion condition of the equipment & regularly clear the furnace coke to avoid the oil leakage of the pipeline.
 The inlet pipeline of the heat exchanger should have temperature meter, pressure meter, steam fire extinguishing system , steam pipeline-sweeping device. The heat exchanger should have regular clearance , clear away the coke.  Other precautions same as “4.2.1,2 distillation course”
 
4.2.1.4
During the Catalytic cracking Sectionwhen the catalyzer get burnt inside the regenerator, the temperature can be as high as 630C650°Cimproper operation will let the air & open flame in ,
this will immediately lead to combustion & explosion. So the oil and gas should be separated off before the catalyst enter the regenerator.
And the regenerating system , the heating furnace should have regular inspections to avoid the oil leakage due to the equipment or pipeline damage.
The stabilizing absorption system, & the Light and heavy oil pumping stations should have
automatic gas alarm detector & fire alarm device.
Other precautions same as “4.2.1,2 distillation course”
 
4。2。1.5
In the gas fractionation course, before the operation, should have a cut-through sweeping of the equipment & the pipelines, to sweep clean the combustible explosible liquid hydrocarbon remains , check air-tightness of the equipments & pipelines to avoid the material leakage. And use the Nitrogen gas or steam to drain out the air inside the equipment & pipeline, make the oxygen content of the Hydrocarbon inside the equipments less than 0.5% to ensure a safe operation start,
*Always check the appliance and pipeline leaks , the top vent valve switch must be flexible and good,and no endoleak。
Key positions within the device area must be equipped with automatic gas alarm detector alarm and on-site alarm facilities.

  4.2.1.6
*During the Hydrocracking Course, this process is carried out at a higher pressure (10 - 15 MPa) and high temperature (370 ~ 430 ° C) condition, and the pressure of compressed hydrogen gas is 10-15 MPa .The leakage of the equipment & pipeline , if any, will lead the high-speed spray of the  hydrogen gas , the friction will produce static sparks, cause an explosion, so to prevent the device or pipeline leakage is a must.
Once leakage discovered , the equipment should be stopped immediately to have a proper handle.
In addition, the long-term contact between the high-pressure hydrogen and steel may cause 'hydrogen embrittlement', lower the compressive strength of the steel container, easy to cause  physical explosion, and then lead to combustible gas fire & explode.
So we must periodically replace the high-voltage equipments of the hydrocracking system, NEVER have a sick running.
Before reactants enter the high pressure separator, some water should be added to the inlet of the cooler to dissolve the ammonia generated in the reaction, avoiding the sulfuric acid & ammonium bicarbonate crystals clog the pipes and coolers。
 
* The reactor should have insulation lining and its outer wall should be painted with the over-temperature display agent t detect the abnormal thermal condition。
* Key positions within the device area must be equipped with automatic gas alarm detector alarm and on-site alarm facilities。

  4.2.1.7
* During the Coking Course, the main danger is that due to friction and adherence of coke in the material, the four-way valve under the coke drum is easy to leak , the temperature of the leaked-out oil can reach 500°C , exceeding the self ignition point, easy to get fire。
So the four-way valve should have regular check & maintenance to avoid leakage.
The steam injection device must be installed beside the four-way valve to ensure a prompt fire extinguish if oil leaks。
* Equipments & pipelines should have regular inspect。
Light oil pumping stations, gas compressor room need to install combustible gas alarm apparatus and other facilities
* In the case of the autoclave coking process , water vapor and condensate in the kettle should be drained out before feeding .
When the coking process finished, first steam into the autoclave , don’t open the autoclave until the temperature drop to the specified value to prevent self ignition.
* In hydraulic decoking case, only after the autoclave temperature drops to the specified degree, should the cold water be injected in to avoid the equipment deform due to the abrupt cooling。
 * The outlet of the Coke furnace should have water spraying device to cool down the finished coke or to extinguish the small fire outside the furnace。 The fire starts inside the autoclave should be extinguished by water steam。
 * Have regular check of the thickness of the autoclave bottom steel, prompt repair or replace if any hidden danger discovered。

 
4。2。1。8
In the Catalytic reforming Course, the operation should strictly comply with the technical requirement。 To have a more frequently regular inspection & maintenance of the equipment。
* Key positions within the device area must be equipped with automatic gas alarm detector alarm and on-site alarm facilities。
 
* The outer wall of the insulation lining of the reactor should be painted with the over-moisture display agent & have regular inspection of all parts of the reactor.
 * Fire precaution of hydrogenation is same as that of 'hydrocracking'.
 
4.2.1.9                     
In the aromatics extraction Course, the medium inside the system is toxic , combustive & explosive. So regular inspection should be taken to the equipments & pipelines to prevent leakage.
If the Safety valve tripped, should reduce the pressure to check the closed down situation of the valve. If the Safety valve fail to have an effective close, need to be dismantled for grinding & checking.   
 
4.2.2   Fire precaution for the petroleum products refining process
  4.2.2.1  In the Hydrotreating Course, regularly check of the tube wall thickness & remove the coke in the tube wall is necessary. Other fire protection measures refer to 'hydrocracking.'
  4.2.2.2  In the Furfural refining Course, remember to prevent the air inside the heater during the heating process & the leakage of the heater.
4.2.2.3         
*During the benzol-ketonedewaxing processes, the adopted ketone, benzene & ammonia are
all toxic, combustible & explosive. So regularly check should be taken to the equipment & pipelines to prevent leakage.
*Ammonia compressor don’t bring liquid ammonia to prevent an explosion.
*Oxygen content in the filter machine should comply with the standard , never be over -content.
*Filter machines and other electrical equipment should be explosion-proof, take care of electric leakage.
*The congealing--clogging in the pipeline would cause the unbalance of the material inletting & outletting, such an unbalance material dispatching will lead to the pressure oppression , then explosion.
  4.2.2.4 幸运时时彩 Fire precaution for the Molecular sieve dewaxing Course:
*Before feeding, all the equipments, pipelines should be sweeped clean by steam or nitrogen ;
*Furnace wall thickness should be regularly checked to prevent leakage;
*Equipment should be well grounded;
*In Molecular sieve regeneration case, the air should be introduced in for coke burning.
When Coking, pay attention not to let the oil moisture mix with air to make out explosive mixture,
To cool with air purge first , and through other means to remove away the deposit coke
* In the refined oil filtering Course, inert gas should be applied as protection.
Strictly comply with the operation rules to prevent the safety valve of the refining tower valve trip & get fire.
 
  4.2.2.5
* In the Propane deasphalting Course, the Propane compressors and other equipment should have regular maintenance,
* Plant should be equipped with combustible gas alarm device。
* The outlet of the Asphalt stripper should have steam fire extinguishing system.
When emptying the Asphalt, the temperature should be strictly controlled to prevent self-ignition. Use steam or Nitrogen to sweep before operation.
Replace the air from the system. Propane mixing with air will produce explosive gas.
 
  4.2.2.6
In the Clay refining process, regularly check the wall thickness of the oven and decoke, strictly comply with the operating procedures.
  4.2.2.7
Other refinery process technology installations, equipments, machinery, Buildings, storage & transportation of flammable materials, and fire spacing can refer to the specified regulations ,in the Refining articles in 'Petrochemical Enterprises Design fire regulations。'YHS801-78
 
 4.2.3 Fire precaution for ethylene production process
  4.2.3.1
* Choose safety devices, equipments should have regular maintenance.
  * Pressure equipment and containers should be installed with explosion-proof , decompression device and other safety device.
 * Pressure gauge should be installed vertically in the pipes and equipment,
*Ammonia and acetylene equipments or pipelines are prohibited to use copper piping or Pressure gauge.
* The Connecting pipeline of the High- Temperature equipments or Flame furnace should have Fire Arrester or water seal。
 * Storage tank should have breather valve;
* To have regular inspection of the explosion-proof , decompression device and other spare parts to ensure the safety reliability 。
* To have regular maintenance of the key-point equipments & containers to clear the hidden danger 。
 
 
  4。2。3。2
* Installing automatic temperature measuring & controlling system to have a strict control of the temperature & pressure control during the producing process.
*   In the key-process, highest & lowest temperature alarm device should be installed。
*   The operators should strictly comply with the Operation Instruction when the operators turn on or turn off the machine, be clear about the of the heating, cooling & constant temperature operation procedure of the oven.
*  During the Hydrogenation Course, the proportion of acetylene & hydrogen should be controlled to prevent the reactor have a flying temperature (abrupt temperature change)。
*  In ethylene production, the pressure-controlling systems, like automatic voltage regulator, automatic alarm, automatic cut-down device , should be installed in the dangerous compression and cryogenic separation process to avoid the risk of improper pressure.
*  Standby power supply and water supply should be prepared .
During operation, the water pressure must be higher than the air pressure.
If the air pressure higher than the water pressure or the water supply is cut off, an emergency blow-down drain should be taken to avoid the fire caused by equipment over-heat cracking due to the lack of water supply or higher air pressure。
All pressure gauges should be sensitive & accurate, full scale should be adaptable for the working pressure of the container.
 
  4.2.3.3
* Strictly control of material feeding flow, feeding proportion, flow speed & liquid level to avoid the static electricity produced by the hydrocarbon gas and liquid during the production process or produced by the over-heating crack of the container.
   * Tower, can or other container should have low / high liquid level auto alarm device and auto material feeding stop system .
* The liquid level of all the suction tanks of the compressor should be more strictly controlled
to prevent the case that the liquid level is too high so that the instruments interlock fails, the tank body get damaged , the material spill out to lead to accident。
 *  According to the feature of the production process & equipments, install the necessary fire fighting equipments, like Class-D fire extinguishing system, Foam fire extinguishing system,
Water sprinkler system,Cooling water system,Steam extinguishing system,etc。
* In the combustible gas leaking area or the open flame area , it’s better to install the combustible gas detector & alarm system and interlock with the Fixed steam curtain fire fighting system.
Reference Documents of the Security precaution in the Chemical Petroleum Technology:
   [1]   Safety Precaution in Chemical Industry,  Mr. Juncheng Jiang,
Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press,2008,8-1
[2]   Chemical Safe production Process in Chemical Industry,
Mr. Fengying Chai, Mr.Zhongshan Tan, Mr. Hao Meng, Mr.Renliang, Chai
Beijing: Science Press .2007.235 - 238
[3]   On the operational risk research,
Mr. Zhiwen Wan, Mr.Ben Hua, Mr.Mingliang Lu.
From Guangdong Chemical Industry .2005,32 (1) :6-8, 19
 [4]   How to have a Risk and Operability Study
Mr. Pei Yang, Mr. Yixiao Liu
From  Refining Technology and Engineering.2005,35 (9) :56-58
 [5]  Hazard Analysis in the Chemical Industry Process
Mr。 Xueping Liao, Beijing: Chemical Industry Press,2000,7-97, 171
[6]   Risk analysis and safety evaluation
Mr。 Yun Luo, Mr。 Yunxiao Fan, Mr。 xiaochun Ma , Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2004。
 
 
 
 
5The Applied Research of Class D Fire Extinguishant
Class D fire is a special uncommon metal fire, very hard to be extinguished. 
 
It’s understand that up to now in worldwide range, only a few brands extinguishant can effectively extinguish the Class D fire, but none of the Class D extinguishant manufacturers can provide a large scale Class D fire extinguish video for reference。
 
especially the Alkyl metal fire。 Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co。, Ltd。 is the only one to reach the GA979-2012 Standard in the world。
 
Since the early 1980s, experts in the relevant firefighting field have been trying a deep research in the Class-D fire extinguishing technology, but failed to make out any breakthrough in the bottle-neck problem。
 
In recent years, accompanying the continues progress & wider application of the new metal alloy materials technology in China, and also the rising demands from the petro-refineries for the Alkyl fire extinguishing, Tianjin Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security launched the Class D extinguishant standards drafting in China. 
 
The StandardGA979-2012 , Class-D Dry Powder Extinguishantwas issued in 2012/FEB/01, formally implemented since 2012/MARCH/01. 
 
Class D fire refers to the fire by combustible solid light metal & liquid alkyl material. 
Class D fire can’t be extinguished by ABC extinguisher or Water-based extinguisher。  Combustible metals are always sensitive with water and can combine with it to give out the dangerous Hydrogn。
In China, we classify the fire into 6 Class: ABCDEF .
The fire can usually be extinguished in 4 methods : Cooing method, Isolation method, Suffocation method and Suppression method.
Aiming to the chemical characteristic of the Class D fire, we have summarized & added a new fire extinguishing method--- the Delaying Method, the brother method of Suppression.
Usually in fire extinguishing practice, Physical ++ Method (Impacting +Coolng/ Covering) is always adopted.  The Delaying Method  is a extension of the Suppression method.
In some fire, the extinguishant need a certain time to have a full neutralization with the blazer. So in the Alkyl fire, Suppression method should be accompanied with The Delaying Method  to get the perfect fire extinguishing effect. 
During the extinguishing of the Alkyl fire (except the N-butyllithium fire ),  the triethylaluminum fire , tri-iso-butyl lithium fire, methyl aluminum material fire won’t be put out promptly because of the increased amount of the extinguishant,  instead it will be slowly extinguished because of the chemical neutralization.
This can find answer in the fire extinguishing model of the triethylaluminum fire in the StandardGA979-2012 , Class-D Dry Powder Extinguishant.
6。10。3.3 of the Standard states :  Fire extinguishing time no longer than 3min, then stir the testing samples inside the steel basin, 30 min after the ejection of the extinguishant, if no reburning occus, it can be regarded as that a triethylaluminum fire has been successfully been put out.
Compare with other fires, Class D fire has a special decomposition and oxidation action.
The hardness of the extinguishing of the Class D fire is because of the oxidation feature。  Further more, what is released out during the oxidation is the explosive Hydrogen。
Understanding from the chemical view, everything mutually reinforce and neutralize each other.
So the key point of the Class D fire extinguishing is to have a right handle of the oxidation action。
Following are the chemical reaction formula of the Class D fire extinguishing.
1.       For Aluminumtriethyl fire extinguishing  
     Na + OH- = Al(OH-)3+Co2=  meta-aluminate
Substance:  Aluminumtriethyl (TEA) ,
Chemical formula: C6H15AlAlC2H53,
formula weight: 114.16.  
Mainly adopted for organic synthesis, or rocket fuel.
This goods has a strong stimulating & corrosion effect, cause major damage to the respiratory tract and eye conjunctiva, Inhalation of high concentrations may cause pulmonary edema。 Inhalation of its fumes can cause fume fever。 Skin contact can cause burns, hyperemia, dropsy , blisters and severe pain。
 
2.       For triisobutyl aluminium fire extinguishing 
Na +OH-= Al(OH-)3+Co2= meta-aluminate
 
Substance:  Aluminium triisobutyltriisobutylaluminium
Chemical formula: C12H27Al;[(CH3)2CHCH2]3Al,
formula weight:    198.33
Appearance & nature: colorless liquid, with strong odor of rotten。
Vapor pressure 0.13kPa/47℃
Flash point<0℃
Melting point -5。6℃
Boiling Point144℃/4.00kPa
SolubilitySoluble in benzene
Density: Relative density (Water=1)0.78
Stability: Unstable
Hazard markers: 9 (flammable) 
Mainly adopted as catalyst for organic synthesis and olefins polymerization。
 
3.       For butyllithium fire extinguishing 
Na + 0H-+ LiOH + Ca =Ca(OH)2 + CO2= CaCO3
Substance:  butyllithiumn-butyllithium
Chemical formula C4H9LiCH3(CH2)3Li
formula weight: 64。06
Flash point -12℃
Melting point -95 °C
Boiling Point80 °C
Solubility:与水反应
Density: Relative density (Water=1)  0.78 Cyclohexane Solution
0.68 Hexane Solution
Hazard markers: 9 (Self-ignite)
 
4.   For Metal Magnesium fire extinguishing
Metal Mg + CO2 = MgO + SecondaryCO2= MgCO3
Metal Magnesiumis an extensible silver light metal . Content lists the eighth in the universe, the 7th in the crust. Metal Magnesium react with hot water to release out Hydrogen, emit dazzling white light in burning.
Many metals can be produced by thermal reduction of its salts and oxides.  Metal Magnesium can compound with most non-metal substance and almost all acids, but will have only slightly reaction with most alkali and organic chemicals , including Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, amines, fat and most oils.
Density :1.74g/cm
Melting point648.8
Boiling Point1107
Valence:  +2
Ionization: 7。646 EV
 
We have already analyzed the classification & fire extinguishing method of the Class D substances above , now let’s analyze their recycling state in burning。
 
A。  Class D combustible substances:
Combustible----Combustible source ----Oxygen -----Oxidation ---- Burning ----Carbonation.
B.      General combustible substances:
Combustible----Combustible source ----Oxygen ----- Decomposition & Carbonation。
 
Mr. Guojiang, Yang, Director & Chief Engineer of the Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co., Ltd. , has been focusing on innovation of new technology & new products in firefighting field for more than 20 years .
After 5 years research & thousand times fire extinguishing experiment, Mr.Yang found out the way to suppress & decompose the Oxidation of the Class D Fire.
 
All the Class D substances are made up of the easy--oxidized metals.
So the working principle of the Class D fire extinguishant is,
Firstly to let the (Na) molecules in sodium chloride to promote the decomposition of the carbon produced in burning,
Then let the calcium (Ca) & sodium (Na) in the extinguishant react to generate out hydroxide ions (OH-) ,
Thenthe hydroxide ions (OH-) will:
 turn the burning aluminum alkyl into aluminium hydroxide;
turn the burning triethyl aluminum / tri butyl lithium into lithium hydroxide;
turn the burning Metal Magnesium  into Magnesium hydroxide .
 
Aiming at the own nature & chemical structure of the Class D Substances, a certain amount of flame retardant is added into the Class D extinguishant , which use sodium salt as main material.
The retardant, catalyst & metal material within Sodium itself will have an effective import & combination。  Meeting the instant high temperature, the extinguishant will release out the gas with suppressive & catalytic function, to reach the retardant & catalyzing fire extinguishing effect 。
(Part of the process is classified & skipped )
 
When using Class D fire extinguishant to extinguish the Class D fire, the drown-style operation method should be adopted, to slowly spray the extinguishant onto the blazer.
The close distance ejecting air pressure(EAP) of the extinguishant is recommend to be
0.6 MPAEAP 0.9 MPA.
 
 
Zhejiang YuAn Fire Fighting Equipment Co., Ltd. is the first manufacturer in China to apply for the Model Certificate, the product has already passed the Model Test according to GA979-2012Class D Dry Powder Fire Extinguishing Agent by CNCF / TFRI。
 CNCF -----China National Center for Quality Supervision & Test of Fixed Fire-ighting Systems & Fire-resisting Building Components
TFRI ----- Tianjin Fire Reasearch Institute, Ministry of Public Security 。
 
All the performance indicators of the extinguishing agent can meet the standard requirements, so we acquired the first Model Test Report of the Class D Dry Powder Fire Extinguishing Agent in China
Yuan has the intellectual property rights。 This also proves that in the Class D extinguishing agent technology our country has reached the world advanced level。
 
Up to now our Class D fire extinguishing equipments have been widely adopted by :
Sinopec, Shanghai Gaoqiao Branch,
Guangdong Maoming Petro-chemical Co。,Ltd。
Zhejiang Zhenhai Refinery Co.Ltd
Tianjin Dagang Refinery Co.,Ltd
Chongqin Meridian- Boao Magnesium Co.,Ltd.
Wenxi County Shengfu Magnesium --powder Factory
Jiangshu Haizheng Pharmacueutical & Chemical Ltd.
ShangHai Jewiff Co.,Ltd.
Shanghai Chanxi Trading Co.,Ltd.
Xiamen Lianke Industry Co.,Ltd.
Zhejiang Liansheng Chemical Industrial Co。,Ltd。
Xian Safety Boiler Material Co.Ltd.
Wuxi Doctor Gasoline-diesel System Sticking Co。,Ltd
Ningbo Jiangdong Zhongan Fire Extinguishing Material Co。Ltd
Tianjing Jinshun Technic Development Co。,Ltd
Wuhan Guide Infrared Co., Ltd
Nanjing Xiechuan Mechnic Equipment Co.,Ltd

  
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